﻿
A Guide to Checkers Families and Rules
Prepared by Sultan Ratrout
Updated February 19, 2017
Page 3
Pages 4-9
Pages 10-18
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Pages 22-23
Page 27-28
Introduction
Checkers/Draughts is a traditional board game played in many countries. To play the game, one needs a chess
board and pieces traditionally called men. Now, to play the game, we must go over the most important questions
[1] What board size should the player use? Depending on the checkers variant, it may be 8*8 , 10*10 or 12*12 or even 14*14.
[2] What colour is the bottom left square? The colour depends on the checkers variant. It may be black or light
[3] How many men should the player use? The number of men depends on the checkers variant and the size of the board. For
example, 8*8 > 12 men, 10*10 > 20 men, 12*12 > 30 men. At the beginning, the number of men is equal for both players.
[4] Where should the player locate the men? Usually playing is on the dark squares though some still play on light squares.
[5] Who should start the game? The checkers variant determines who starts the game. Sometimes, the players determine that.
[6] Where should the player move the men? The movement depends on the checkers variant. Usually, the men move
diagonally forward in the same colour of the squares. In some variants, the men move orthogonally forward or sideways.
[7] Is the player forced to capture the other men? Capture is mandatory and one is forced to capture the opponent’s men
[8] How does the player capture? Capturing is made by “jumping” - moving two consecutive steps in the same line, jumping
over the piece on the first step. Multiple opposing pieces may be captured in a single turn if done by successive jumps made by a
single piece
[9] How many pieces is the player allowed to capture? It depends on the checkers variant. Some allow maximum capture of
the opponent’s pieces. For example, if there is a chance to choose between capturing 10 or 8 men, you must capture 10 men.
Other variants, don’t force you to capture the maximum number of the opponent’s men. You can choose any capture sequence. If we
go back again to our example of 10 and 8 men, any sequence of capture here means you will choose either 10 or 8 men.
[10] In which direction can the player’s men move? The movement depends on the checkers variant. Usually, the men move
diagonally forward on the same colour of the squares. In some variants, the men move orthogonally forward or sideways.
[11] In which direction can the player capture the opponent’s men? The movement depends on the checkers variant.
Usually, men capture diagonally forward on the same colour of the squares. Some variants allow capturing backwards or orthogonal
[12] How can the player remove the captured men? Usually in diagonal games, men are removed after the whole capturing
move whereas in orthogonal games, men are removed during the capture. There few exceptions of course as in Thai checkers.
[13] Can capture continue in the last rank? Depending on the checkers variant, there are three possibilities.
[A] Capture terminates and a man becomes a king. [B] Capture continues and a man remains a man
[C] Capture continues with a man becoming a king
[14] What happens when the man reaches the final rank? Usually, the man is crowned and it becomes a king. It has more
privileges than the ordinary man. For example, it can move and capture forwards, backward and even orthogonally.
[15] What are the types of Kings? Kings can be of three types. [A] Non-flying kings (Short kings). Here, kings move only
one square forward or backward. They capture also one square forward or backward. [B] Flying Kings move any number of
squares diagonally/orthogonally forwards or backwards. After the completion of the capturing, Kings can land on any field behind
the captured piece. [C] Short Flying Kings (King Halt):- Here, Kings move any number of squares diagonally/orthogonally
forwards or backwards. After the completion of the capturing, the king must land directly behind the captured piece.
[16] When does the player win? A player wins if the opponent has no legal move, either because [a]all his pieces are captured
OR [b] he is completely blocked. OR [c] he resigns. There are also special winning conditions for some draughts variants.
[17] What about draw conditions? [a] If a player offers a draw and if the other side accepts, then the game is a draw.
[b] If both players are left with only one piece and if that piece is a king, then the game is a draw since the game can go on
indefinitely. [c] There are special draw conditions for some draughts variants either determined locally or by draughts
federations. Wikipedia has also draw conditions for many draughts variants.
(I) .Checkers Starting Positions
Checkers games starting positions (A)
Turkish, Arab, Greek,
Turkish, Arab, Greek,
Gothic= Old German,
Old Turkish (second row
Armenian,Turkthic
Armenian and Turkthic
pieces move two steps
(Actual Board)
(Alternative Board)
forward like chess)
8*8
8*8
8*8
White starts
White starts
White starts
Checkers games starting positions (B)
Old Polish
International,
and in some
Croda,
Frisian,
Scandinavian and
Universal Checkers
Indonesian
German game books and
Laotian
Michaelsen’s
reconstruction
8*8
10*10
10*10
White starts
White starts
White starts
Checkers games starting positions (C)
Ivorian ,
Paraguayan, Ghanian
Sri Lankan
Winther’s reconstruction
Malaysian /Singaporean,
of Makvar and Marquere
10*10
12*12
12*12
White starts
White starts
White starts
Checkers games starting positions (D)
Brazilian, American/British,
Dam Haji/African American
Filipino, Italian,
Straight, Russian, Bashni,
Jamaican,
South African
Pool, Czech, German, Central-
Spanish, Myanmar,
south German, North German,
Portuguese, Argentinian,
Swazi, Tanzanian,
Winther’s reconstruction
Siberian, Makvar,Marquere,
of Makvar and Marquere
14*14
8*8
8*8
White starts in all except for
White starts in all except
White starts
American, American pool,
for Jamaican, where black
African-American straight
startss
checkers and North German
where black starts. In
Tanzanian or Swazi, the starter
is either white or black.
Checkers games starting positions (E)
Spantsiretti
Thai , Slovak
(Russian 80 cells(
10*8
8*8
White starts
Black starts in Thai whereas
White starts in Slovak
Summary of Checkers starting positions
#
Checkers Variants
Board
Location of checkers
Squared
Bottom left
Starter
size
used
square
Turkish, Arab, Greek,
16 checkers on the second and
Black + light
8*8
third horizontal rows with the
Black
White
A
Armenian and Turkthic
back row (first row) vacant
Gothic, Old German and Old
8*8
16 checkers on the first and
Black + light
Black
White
Turkish
second horizontal rows
Croda, Universal Checkers
8*8
24 checkers on the first, second
Black + light
Black
White
and third horizontal rows
International, Frisian,
10*10
20 checkers on the first, second,
Black
Black
White
B
Indonesian, Laotian
third and fourth horizontal rows
squares only
Old Polish+ some
10*10
15 checkers on the first, second
Black
Black
White
Scandinavian,German games
and third horizontal rows
squares only
Ivorian,Paraguayan, Ghan,
10*10
20 checkers on the first, second,
Black
Light
White
Winther’s Makvar+Marquere
third and fourth horizontal rows
squares only
30 checkers on the first, second,
Black
C
Malaysian /Singaporean,
12*12
third, fourth and fifth horizontal
squares only
Black
White
rows
12*12
30 checkers on the first, second,
Black
Sri Lankan
third, fourth and fifth horizontal
squares only
Light
White
rows
42 checkers on the first, second,
Black
South African
14*14
third, fourth, fifth and sixth
squares only
Black
White
horizontal rows
Brazilian, American/British,
White starts in all except
Dam Haji/African American
for American, American
Straight, Russian, Bashni,
pool, African-American
Pool, Czech, German,
8*8
12 checkers on the first, second
Black
straight checkers and
D
Central-south German,
and third horizontal rows
squares only
Black
North German where
North German, Swazi,
black starts. In Tanzanian
Tanzanian, Siberian,
or Swazi, the starter is
Makvar,Marquere
either white or black
Filipino, Italian, Jamaican,
White starts in all except
Spanish, Myanmar,
8*8
12 checkers on the first, second
Black
Light
for Jamaican, where
Portuguese, Argentinian,
and third horizontal rows
squares only
black starts
Winther’s Makvar+Marquere
Spantsiretti
10*8
15 checkers on the first, second
Black
Black
White
E
(Russian 80 cells(
and third horizontal rows
squares only
Thai , Slovak
8*8
8 checkers on the first and
Black
Black
Black starts in Thai
second horizontal rows
squares only
White starts in Slovak
(II). Survey of Checkers Families
(A). Turkish Checkers Related Variants (Orthogonal) (Maximum Capture) (No Back-capture)
Man jumping
Bott
Back-
Flying
at last rank
notation
left
Game
Board
Men
wards
Capture rule
Notes
Start
king
(capture and
Sq
capture
crowning)
black
sequence of
A man moves and captures sideways or
maximum
forward only. A king moves and captures
capture
forwards, backwards and sideways. Pieces are
removed during capture. If a man reaches
Chess,
(Within a
Capture
the final row in a capture next to an undefended
A1 is on
multi-capture,
continues in
opposing king, it must then proceed to capture
Turkish
8*8
16
W
left of
X
turning 180
last rank and a
this opponent’s king before it is crowned itself.
(Dama)
white
degrees
man does not
If there is another opponent’s king in the same
between two
change status
final row and if it is away from the first
captures is not
opponent’s captured king, your king can’t
allowed.)
capture it.
Same as Turkish. Warning is optional. You may
Capture
Chess,
or not warn the opponent to move his piece
sequence of
continues in
A1 is on
before it gets captured, so the opponent must
Arab
8*8
16
maximum
last rank and a
left of
move his threatened piece if possible. In
(Dama)
W
X
capture
man does not
white
Bahrain, you aren’t allowed to move your man
change status
to another square to threaten or capture the
opponent’s man if you’re under attack/capture.
Capture
Chess,
Same as Turkish but the King must land on the
sequence of
continues in
A1 is on
first square after last jumped piece (king
Greek
8*8
16
X
maximum
last rank and a
the left of
halt).The other variants include any sequence
W
(Ntama)
capture
man does not
white
of capture & a variant where capture continues
change status
with the man becoming a king in last rank.
Capture
Chess,
sequence of
Same as Turkish, but Pieces are removed
continues in
A1 is on
8*8
16
maximum
after the whole capture NOT during
(PhèkIèn)
X
last rank with
the left of
W
capture
capture.
a crowned man
white
Sequence of
Same as Turkish .Pieces are removed
maximum
during capture. In General, players abide by
capture.
Capture
Chess,
rules but some players allow the following
Ossetian
A king can
continues in
A1 is on
[a] Any sequence of capture can be chosen
W
8*8
16
X
Keny
immediately
last rank with
left of
[b] A man continues capturing as a man NOT
reverse
a crowned man
white
as a king in the last rank.
direction in a
[c] A king captures normally. It may not be
capture.
allowed to reverse direction in a capture.
(B).International Checkers Related Variants (I) (Diagonal) (Back capturing) (Maximum Capture sequence)
Man jumping at
Bottom
Back-
Flying
last rank
left
Game
Board
Men
wards
Capture rule
notation
Notes
Start
king
(capture and
Sq is
capture
crowning)
black
Men move forward
Old polish was
International/
sequence of
Capture continues
Numeric
played with 15 men.
Polish
10*10
20
maximum
and a man does not
1-50, 1 on
The game is a draw
(Dames/
W
capture
change status
right of black
when the same
Warcaby)
position repeats
itself for 3 times.
Ivorian/
sequence of
Capture continues
Numeric
X
Mirrored board of
Paraguayan
10*10
20
W
maximum
and a man does not
1-50, 1 on
international
(Dames)
capture
change status
right of black
sequence of
Capture continues
Numeric
The 12*12 board of
( Jeu de/
12*12
30
W
maximum
and a man does not
1-72, 1 on
international
Dames/ Quebec)
capture
change status
right of black
sequence of
Capture continues
Numeric
Sri Lankan
Mirrored board of
12*12
30
W
maximum
and a man does not
1-72, 1 on
X
(Dam)
capture
change status
right of black
sequence of
Capture continues
Numeric
South African
The 14*14 board of
14*14
42
W
maximum
and a man does not
1-98, 1 on
(Dumm)
international
capture
change status
right of black
Brazilian
sequence of
Capture continues
Chess,
(Minor Polish/
W
The 8*8 board of
8*8
12
maximum
and a man does not
A1 on left of
64 polish)
international
capture
change status
white
(Damas)
Mirrored board of
Brazilian. It is also
X
sequence of
Capture continues
Chess,
Filipino
played on a lined
W
8*8
12
maximum
and a man does not
A1 on left of
(Derecha)
board where only
capture
change status
white
diagonals are
represented.
Chess, A1 on
Capture continues
Huffing is part of
Swazi
W
sequence of
left of white
with the man
the game. Pieces
(Mswati)
8*8
12
maximum
Or Numeric
or
becoming a king in
are removed
capture
1-32, 1 is on
B
last rank
during capture.
right of black
(B). International Checkers Related Variants (II) (Diagonal) (Back capturing) (Any Capture sequence)
Back-
Man jumping
Bottom
Flying
notation
Game
Board
Men
wards
Capture rule
at last rank
Left
king
Start
capture
(Cap+crown)
sq
Notes
Capture
If there are 3 kings
Russian
8*8
12
Any sequence may
continues with
playing against one
(Shashki)
Chess,
be chosen, as long
the man
king, and the player
A1 on left
as all possible
becoming a king
with 3 kings is unable to
W
of white
Spantsiretti
in last rank
win within 15 moves,
10*8
15
Russian 80 cells
then the game is a draw.
Bashni
Capture
Same as Russian, but
(Towers/
Any sequence may
continues with
captured pieces are not
Chess,
Russian
be chosen, as long
the man
removed from the game,
8*8
12
A1 on left
Columns)
as all possible
becoming a king
but placed underneath
W
of white
(Stolbovye
in last rank
the capturing piece,
Shashki)
forming a "tower".
Am Pool>If a player has
American
Numeric 1-
3 kings and the other
Pool/
32, 1 is on
Capture
has just one king, the
B
Swedish/
right of
Pool
Any sequence may
continues and a
one with 3 kings must
Norwegian
8*8
12
black
be chosen, as long
man does not
win within 13 moves.
as all possible
change status
Chess,
Same draw condition as
Unified Pool
W
A1 on left
Am Pool but the player
(Jake Kacher)
of white
must win with 12 moves
North German
Any sequence may
Capture
Chess,
(Polish-German-
B
be chosen, as long
continues and a
8*8
12
A1 on left
Norwegian/
as all possible
man does not
of white
Swedish)
change status
Same draw conditions
Chess,
as Am Pool in endgames
A1 on right
X
Jamaican
Any sequence may
Capture
Numeric 1-32, 1 on right
B
of black.
be chosen, as long
continues and a
of black is also possible
8*8
12
as all possible
man does not
Same draw condition as
Unified
Chess,
change status
W
Jamaican
A1 on right
but the player must win
(Jake Kacher)
of white
with 12 moves
Ghanaian
X
Same as International,
Any sequence may
Capture
Numeric
(Damii)
but in Ghanaian only,
be chosen, as long
continues and a
1-50,
10*10
20
huffing is enforced. You
W
as all possible
man does not
1 on right
Laotian /Laos
lose if left with a single
change status
of black
piece (man/king)
(C).Turkish +International Checkers Related Variants (Orthogonal +Diagonal)
Man jumping
Bott
Back-
Flying
Capture
at last rank
notation
Left
Game
Board
Men
wards
Notes
Start
king
rule
capture and
Sq
capture
crowning
black
Armenian I
Same as Turkish except that it allows
(Tama)
Capture
diagonal movement. Some play it with
X
Willy Schmidit
the Russian rule: - a man can continue
continues in last
sequence of
Chess,
most common
capturing as a king in the last rank.
W
rank and a man
8*8
16
maximum
A1 on left
Armenian II
does not change
Same as Turkish but there is no
capture
of white
(Tama)
status
diagonal movement. A multiple capture
Heinz
must begin with a forward/sideways
Machatscheck
capture.
Capture
Chess,
Men move forward diagonally. Men
Gothic
Any sequence
terminates and
A1 on
capture in 5 directions orthogonally
(reconstructed
8*8
16
X
of Capture
a man becomes
left of
forwards, diagonally and sideways.
W
by
X
chosen
a king
white
Kings move diagonally forward and
Blachetta)
backward. They capture in 8 directions
Old
Capture
Chess,
Also known as Gothic. Same as Gothic
sequence of
German
terminates and
A1 on
reconstructed by Blachetta but a king
(√)
8*8
16
X
maximum
(Altdeutsche
a man becomes
left of
moves in 8 directions and recently a
W
capture
Dame)
a king
white
flying king is used instead of short king
Men move and capture in 5 directions
Turkthic
Capture
Chess,
orthogonally forwards, diagonally
(Turkish
sequence of
continues with
A1 on
forwards and sideways. Kings move
Gothic)
8*8
16
X
maximum
the man
left of
and capture in 8 directions. The king
W
(Turkish-
capture
becoming a
white
must land on the first square after last
diagonal)
king in last rank
jumped piece (king halt). Removal
Boyer/Parton
of captured pieces is immediate
Capture
Chess,
Men move forward orthogonally or
sequence of
continues in last
A1 on the
diagonally. They capture orthogonally
Croda
maximum
8*8
24
rank and a man
left of
forwards, backwards and sideways.
W
(Croation)
capture
does not change
white
Kings move and capture orthogonally
status
forwards, backwards and sideways
Chess,
Men move in all directions except for
sequence of
Capture cont+
Universal
W
A1 on the
back. Capture is in all directions
8*8
24
maximum
a man does not
Checkers
left of W
whether for men or kings.
capture
change status
(D). Frisian Checkers and Related Variants (Diagonal+ orthogonal)
(I) Flying kings move along unblocked diagonal rows only.
Man jumping
Back-
Bottom
Flying
Capture
at last rank
notation
Game
Board
Men
wards
Left
Start
king
rule
(capture
Notes
capture
sq
and crowning
Same as International checkers but men
sequence of
can capture in vertical and horizontal
max capture
directions, on squares of the same
(Capture
colour, so captures are in 8 directions.
must give
Flying kings may move freely along
the max
unblocked diagonals. The king may only
"value" to
move three successive times in a row.
capture. A
Then it must be set free by capture
king has
(possibly with the same piece), or by the
more value
W
move of any other of the same player's
Frisian
than a man,
Capture
Numeric
pieces. This rule is not valid if the player
(Fries
20
but less than
continues and a
10*10
1-50,
has only kings left. A king can also
Dammen)
2 men. This
man does not
1 on right
capture in all directions (vertical,
means
change status
of black
horizontal) on squares of the same
2 men are
colour. If a king and a man can capture
higher in
an equal value, then Capture with
value than
king is mandatory. If many captures
one king,
are available, then you must choose the
and one
one that captures the maximum
man is lower
number of the opponent's kings. If,
in value
at the end, one player has 2 kings and the
than one
other has one, the player with the 2 kings
king
must win within 7 moves, or a draw.
Men and kings capture in 8 directions
(diagonally, horizontally, and vertically
on squares of the same colour.)Flying
kings may move freely along unblocked
Capture
diagonals. It should be noted that neither
W
Chess,
Any capture
continues and a
men nor kings due to the properties of
Siberian
8*8
12
A1 on left
sequence
man does not
the board can capture more than four
of white
change status
pieces at once. It’s not clear whether
there is an existing variant with a
crowned man continuing capturing in
the last rank. Same draw conditions as
Russian.
(D). Frisian Checkers Related Variants (Diagonal+ orthogonal)
(II) Flying kings move along unblocked diagonal and orthogonal rows
Man jumping
Back-
Bottom
Flying
Capture
at last rank
notation
Game
Board
Men
wards
Left
Start
king
rule
(capture
Notes
capture
sq
and crowning
Capture
Both Marquere and Makvar are same
Swedish
8*8
12
Any
terminates and
8*8
as International checkers, but men
(Marquern)
capture
W
X
a man becomes
Numeric
and kings can also capture vertically
[Billberg]
10*10
15
sequence
a king
1-32,
and horizontally.
1 on right
of black
In both Marquere and Makvar,
8*8
12
Unknown
Unknown
capture is on squares of the same
Unknown, so
So, it
(It may be
Danish
capture may
10*10
colour (black).
W
may be
max
(Makvar)
Terminate or
Numeric
capture
1-50,
In both Marquere and Makvar ,
[Jørgensen ]
continue
Or
or any
10*10
15
1 on right
Flying kings move orthogonally and
in last rank
X
sequence)
of black
diagonally along unblocked rows
(only on black squares)
In Winther’s reconstruction (Main
variant), a man can capture in 8
maximum
8*8
directions where capture is on
8*8
12
Capture
capture
Numeric
squares of the same colour (black).
continues and a
(Main
1-32,
As for the other variants, there is a
man does not
Mats
W
Variant)
1 on right
variant without backward capture
change status
Winthers’
Main
of black
(man can only capture in 5 directions:
(main variant)
reconstrution
Variant
OR
N,NE,NW,E,W)
X
including
OR
OR
Marquern/
X
Any
10*10
Also, there’s a variant where the man
Capture term
Makvar
other
Capture
Numeric
can only capture in 3 forward
10*10
20
and a man
variants
Sequence
1-50,
directions: NE,NW, N
becomes a king
(other
1 on right
Capture is on the same square and
(other variants)
Variants)
of black
flying kings move orthogonally and
diagonally along unblocked rows
(only on black squares)
Peter
Men capture diagonally forwards,
10*10
Michaelsen’s
Capture
sideways and orthogonally forwards.
Any
Numeric
reconstrution
W
terminates and
Capture is on the same black square
10*10
15
X
capture
1-50,
including
a man becomes
and flying kings move orthogonally
sequence
1 on right
Marquern/
a king
and diagonally along unblocked rows
of black
Makvar
(only on black squares)
(E) Spanish Checkers Related Variants (I) (Diagonal) (No Back capturing) (Maximum Capture)
Man jumping
bottom
Back-
Flying
at last rank
notation
left
Game
Board
Men
wards
Capture rule
Start
king
(capture and
Square
Note
capture
crowning)
is black
Men move forward. If there are
two or several moves that
capture the same number of men
Numeric
sequence of
Capture
and kings, you must capture
Spanish
1-32, 1 on
X
W
8*8
12
X
maximum
terminates and
the maximum number of
(Damas)
right of
capture
a man becomes
the opponent's kings. Some
white
a king
still play the game on light
squares when the bottom left
square is black.
Same as Spanish, but the game is
Capture
Numeric
always played on dark squares.
sequence of
Portuguese
X
terminates and
1-32, 1 on
X
Regarding 3 kings vs 1 king, if
8*8
12
W
maximum
(Damas)
a man becomes
right of
the player with 3 kings is unable
capture
a king
white
to win within 12 moves, then it is
a draw.
Capture
Same as Spanish except that the
Numeric
sequence of
terminates and
king must land on the first
Argentinian
1-32, 1 on
8*8
12
X
maximum
a man becomes
X
square after last jumped piece
(Damas)
W
right of
capture
a king
(King halt). As a variant, it’s
white
also found in S.C. Germany
Before stating, players agree on
“must Capture" or "Free
sequence of
Numeric
Capture
Capture”. In "Must Capture", the
Myanmar
maximum
1-32, 1 on
8*8
12
X
terminates and
X
man that doesn't capture is
(Dama)
W
capture
right of
a man becomes
collected by the opponent as a
white
a king
fine. In "Free capture", it is
optional to capture.
Sequence of
Capture
Numeric
Huffing is enforced.
Indonesian
maximum
terminates and
1-50, 1 on
W
10*10
20
X
The game is also played on a
(Dam blas)
capture
a man becomes
right of
12*12 board.
a king
black
Huffing is enforced.If you can
Malaysian/
Sequence of
Capture
Numeric
capture with a man or a king,
Singaporean
maximum
terminates and
1-72, 1 on
12*12
30
W
you must capture with a king.
(Dam Haji/
X
capture
man becomes a
right of
(Capture with king is
Dum)
king
black
mandatory. Also played on 8*8
(E) Spanish Checkers Related Variants (II) (Diagonal) (No Back capturing) (Any Capture sequence)
Man jumping
bottom
Back-
Flying
at last rank
notation
left
Note
Game
Board
Men
wards
Capture rule
Start
king
(capture and
Sq
capture
crowning)
black
Any sequence
If you are able to capture a
may be chosen, as
Capture
Chess,
piece either with a king or a
Czech
8*8
12
long as all
terminates and
A1 on left
man, capture it with a king, i.e.
W
(Dama)
X
possible captures
a man becomes
of white
Capture with king
a king
mandatory
Any sequence
Same as Czech checkers, but
may be chosen, as
Capture
Chess,
Huffing is enforced. If a player
Slovak
8*8
8
long as all
terminates and
A1 on left
has no legal moves, but does
W
(Dama)
X
possible captures
a man becomes
of white
still have pieces on the board,
a king
the game is a draw.
The king must land on the first
Any sequence
square after last jumped piece
Capture
Numeric
may be chosen, as
(king halt). Removal of
Thai
X
terminates and
1-32, 1 on
8*8
8
B
long as all
captured pieces is
(Makhos)
a man becomes
right of
possible captures
immediate. A king could
a king
white
immediately reverse
direction in a capture.
Any sequence
Numeric
AASC is played in the Black
African-
Capture
may be chosen,
1-32, 1 on
communities of the US.
American
terminates and
8*8
12
B
as long as all
right of
Tanzanian Starter and Notation
Straight
X
a man becomes
possible captures
black
are not fixed. For its draw rules,
a king
Tanzanian
W/B
Not fixed
Check Wikipedia Article.
For German, Sometimes, (but
rarely), capture with king
Any sequence
German/
Capture
mandatory is used.
may be chosen,
Chess,
Swedish
terminates and
Also, sometimes, (but rarely) a
8*8
12
W
as long as all
A1 on left
X
(Dame/
a man becomes
sequence of maximum
possible captures
of white
Damspel)
a king
capture is followed.
For Swedish, there is NO
capture with king mandatory
Central-
Same as German, but the king
South German/
Any sequence
must land on the first square
Capture
Danish/
may be chosen,
Chess,
after last jumped piece (king
terminates and
Finnish
8*8
12
as long as all
A1 on left
halt).Some call it Standard
W
a man becomes
X
(Süddeutsche
possible captures
of white
German Checkers. A variant
a king
Dame/ Damspil
with maximum capture
Tammi)
exists only for C.S German
(F) American Checkers Related Variants (Diagonal) (No back capturing) (No flying Kings)
Man jumping
Bottom
Back-
Flying
Capture
at last rank
Notation
left
Game
Board
Men
wards
Start
king
rule
(capture and
Square
Notes
capture
crowning)
is black
Men move forward only.
Checkers is also called
Straight Checkers
Any
sequence
Recently, some have started
American/
may be
Numeric
Capture terminates
to play checkers on a larger
British
chosen, as
1-32,
8*8
12
X
X
and a man becomes a
board. “Crowded
(Checkers/
B
long as all
1 on right
king
checkers” is played on a
Draughts)
possible
of black
10*10 board with 20 men
captures
each.
Sparse checkers” is
played on a 10*10 board with
15 men each
A man cannot capture a
king.
When you have several
captures with the maximum
number of pieces, you must
capture with a king (if you
can) i.e. Capture with king
sequence
Numeric
Capture terminates
mandatory.
Italian
W
of
1-32,
8*8
12
X
X
and a man becomes a
X
When you have several
(Dama)
maximum
1 on right
king
maximum captures with
capture
of black
kings, you must capture
the maximum number of
the opponent's kings.
When there are still choices,
you must capture by the way
which makes you capture a
king as soon as possible
(III). Movement and Capture Direction
Family
Game
Man’s
Man’s
King’s
King’s
movement
capture
movement
capture
E;N;W
E;N;W
E;N;W;S
E;N;W;S
Tur
Keny
Inter, Ivo, Cana, Sri L,
S.Afr, Braz, Filip, Swazi,
Int
Russ, Spant,Bash,Pool,
NW;NE
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE
N.Ger, Jam,Ghan, Lao
Armenian I
W;N;E;NE;NW
W;N;E
W;N;E;NE;NW;S;SW;SE
W;N;E;S
Armenian II
W;N;E;NE;NW
W;N;E;S
W;N;E;NE;NW;S;SW;SE
W;N;E;S
Turk+
Gothic
NW;NE
NW;NE;W;N;E
NW;NE;SE;SW
NW;NE;SE;SW;W;N;E;S
Inter
Old German
NW;NE
NW;NE;W;N;E
NW;NE;SE;SW;W;N;E;S
NW;NE;SE;SW;W;N;E;S
Turkthic
NW;NE;W;N;E
NW;NE;W;N;E
NW;NE;SE;SW;W;N;E;S
NW;NE;SE;SW;W;N;E;S
Croda
NW;N;NE
W;N;E;S
W;N;E;S
W;N;E;S
Universal Checkers
W;N;E;NE;NW
W;N;E;NE;NW;S;SW;SE
W;N;E;NE;NW;S;SW;SE
W;N;E;NE;NW;S;SW;SE
Frisian
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE
Siberian
NW;NE
Orthogonally along
NW;NE;SW;SE
Orthogonally along
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
NW;NE; Orthogonally
NW;NE;SW;SE Orthogonally
NW;NE;SW;SE
Marquere
NW;NE
along unblocked rows
along unblocked rows
Orthogonally along
Inter
W;E;N
S;W;E;N
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
+
NW;NE; Orthogonally
NW;NE;SW;SE Orthogonally
NW;NE;SW;SE
Turk
Makvar
NW;NE
along unblocked row N
along unblocked rows
Orthogonally along
S;W;E;N
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
Winthers’+
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE Orthogonally
NW;NE;SW;SE
Michaelsen’s
NW;NE
Orthogonally along
along unblocked rows
Orthogonally along
Reconstruction of
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
S;W;E;N
unblocked rows S;W;E;N
Marquere/ makvar
Spanish ,Port, Argen,
Mayn,Malay,Indonesian
Span
Czech,Slov,Thai,Afri-
NW;NE
NW;NE
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE
Am, Tanz, Germ,
C. S German
Am
American, Italian
NW;NW
NW;NW
NW;NE;SW;SE
NW;NE;SW;SE
Diagonal
[A] Forward: -NW=North West NE=North East
[B] Backward: - SW=South West SE=South East
Orthogonal
[A] Sideways: - W = West
E=East
[B] Forward: - N=North
[C] Backward: - S=South
(IV).Summary of Checkers Survey covering Board Presentation and Rules
(1) Bottom
backward
Backward Capture
left sq black
Forward Capture
Capture
(2) Quality
Dia
Diagonal+
Capture:-
orth
+
Diagonal
orthogonal
capture
Diagonal
Orthogonal
orth
max kings)
Maximum Capture
(3) Capture
10*
8*8
10*8
10*10
12*12
14*14
8*8
10*10
continues in
8*8
8*8
12*12
8*8
8*8
8*8
8*8
10
last rank
(4) Capture
12
15
20
30
42
12
20
ends in last
16
8
20
30
16
24
16
24
men
men
men
men
men
men
men
rank+man
men
men
men
men
men
men
men
men
is crowned
(5) Capture
continues in
last rank
with a man
crowned
(6)
Flying
kings
(long kings)
Any Capture sequence
(7) Man can
capture
king
(8) Remove
pieces
during
capture
North
(9) Capture
Germ
with king
(1,3,6,7,10)
mandatory
(10)
Jam
White starts
(3,6,7)
(11) King
halt
Pool
(12) King
(1,3,6,7)
can reverse
Am. Pool
direction
(1,3,6,7)
in capture
(V). Give away Checkers
#
Point
Relevant information
In traditional checkers games, the object of the game is to capture all of your opponent’s pieces first or
to block him. You do this by forcing yourself into capturing the opponent’s pieces. In contrast, the object
of give-away checkers game is to get rid of all of your pieces first (or be blocked). You do this by forcing
your opponent into captures. In other words, the winner is the first player to have no legal move: that is, all
1
Introduction
of whose pieces are lost or blocked. You should remember that you must follow the rules of the
original game if you want to play any give-away of any checkers variant. Give-away is the same
as the standard checkers games. The only difference is that here you want to get rid of your pieces rather
than to get rid of the opponent’s pieces.
2
Alternative
terms
Suicide Checkers, Anti-Checkers, Losing Checkers, Misère Checkers (Draughts).
Give-away is relatively an old game. The Give-away German game dates back to the 19th century. In
3
Historical
1841, the "Universal-Lexikon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit oder neuestes encyclopädisches
background
Wörterbuch der Wissenschaften, Künste und Gewerbe" by Heinrich Augus,t Pierer mentions this term and
its definition. The earliest reference is by Pierre Mallet: LE IEUV DE DAMES, Paris 1668.
Give-away checkers isn’t that popular in the English speaking world. Give-away Czech checkers is
4
Popular
still popular. But the most popular game is Russian Give-away (Poddavki). It is a much played
variants
variant nowadays. There is also Give-away International checkers.
In reality, one could play any kind of Give-away variant (Turkish, Pool…..etc)
The following softwares let you play the Give-away of any checkers variant that you want :-
5
Softwares
WorldCheckers8 1.7 , Checkers-7 2.5 ,Mad Checkers and Gigant Checkers
playing give-
The following softwares let you play specific variants of Give-away
away variants.
Windames, checkersland, zillions of games,
Importance of
The value of Give-away is to try something new, a new game with new strategies and tactics. In this case,
6
give-away
your mind will accommodate a new perspective, one that fundamentally differs from the traditional
Checkers
perspective which relies on different patterns. Remember, you need to be smart if you decide to play give-
away variants.
(VI) A simpler Checkers Survey (Basic Checkers Variants)
(1) Capture
continues in last rank
bott
Quality
Priority
Remove
Man
(2) Capture ends in
left
Rule:-
Rule:-
captured
Can
Flying
last rank and man
squ
capture
Capture
pieces
capture
Board +
Pieces
Start
king
becomes a king
is
maximum
With King
during
king
Game
(3) Capture continues
black
number of
mandatory
capture
in last rank with a
kings
crowned man
8*8
Russian
12
W
(3)
X
X
X
Pool
12
B
(1)
X
X
X
Brazilian
12
W
(1)
X
X
X
10*10
International
20
W
(1)
X
X
X
12*12
30
W
(1)
X
X
X
14*14
South African
35
W
(1)
X
X
X
10*10
Frisian
20
W
(1)
X
8*8
Spanish
12
W
(2)
X
X
X
Italian
12
W
X
(2)
X
X
X
American
12
B
X
(2)
X
X
X
12*12
Malaysian
30
W
(2)
X
X
8*8
Turkish
16
W
(1)
X
X
-
-
Armenian
16
W
(1)
X
X
(3)
8*8
8
B
King
(2)
Thai
halt
King can reverse
X
X
direction in capture
German
12
W
√ (King
(2)
X
X
X
halt)
Czech
12
W
(2)
X
X
Related to my survey of basic checkers variant, is the Venn diagram submitted by Maurizio De
Leo and Ralf Gering to the website, www.boardgamegeek.com
(VII) Dameo: A New Step in the Evolution of Draughts? (Christian Freeling)
Man jumping
bottom
Back-
Start
Flying
Capture
at last rank
left
Notes
Dameo starting position
Board
Men
wards
king
rule
(capture and
Square
capture
crowning)
is black
Men move forward orthogonally
and diagonally forward. They
don’t move sideways !
Kings move orthogonally and
diagonally.
Men and kings capture
orthogonally:- forwards,
backwards and sideways.
sequence
Capture
Linear movement is defined
of
continues and a
8*8
18
W
as the move of a straight
maximum
man does not
unbroken line of men of the
capture
change status
same color, one square along
the line of squares they occupy,
provided the square in front is
vacant. It includes the move of a
single man, which may be
considered as a line-of-one.
Linear movement does not apply
to kings.
According to Freeling, Dameo had two immediate and one subsequent advantages over its predecessors:
[1] It adds flexibility in terms of overall progress (allowing for a more or a less aggressive style, as you like) while taking
nothing away: every move possible in a Croda position is also possible under Dameo’s rules.
[2] It decreases the heaviness on the sides, which are popular alleys for progress and attack in ‘square’ Draughts games.
Dameo requires economical maneuvering between the sides and the center.
[3] Two generic basic tactics emerged based on linear movement, the Double Square formation and the Ladder. The
former plays a key role throughout the opening and middle game.
(VIII) Geographical distribution of Draughts Variants
The following map is taken from Alemmani’s book, “LES JEUX DE DAMES DANS LE MONDE”
Note (1) In the Sahran area, people play games based on Alquerque board whether it is small or big.
Note (2) Of all the games in Mongolia, the closet draughts game to the western game of draughts is called “the dööv” and its board
is that of 2*8, i.e the board of Checkers games starting positions (E), Thai checkers. Mongolian draughts has a restriction. You can
only capture a piece at a time. Besides, there are many variants from one village to the other. In Mongolian draughts, men move
diagonally forward, but many things are not known, which explains why many variants exist. [a] It is not known whether men are
allowed to capture backwards. [b] It is not unknown whether the king is a short king or whether it is a flying king. [c] It is not known
whether one must abide by the maximum capture principle or whether one is allowed to choose any sequence of capture. [d] It is
not known whether a man can continue jumping in last rank as a king.
For the draughts/checkers regions, also check https://boardgamegeek.com/wiki/page/Checkers_family
(IX) Draughts/Checkers Terms
Term
Definition
Term
Definition
The playing surface. Typically, a 64-square checker
The last row on the checker board. When a
Board
board is used, though some variations use larger board.
King row
checker reaches the king row, it is crowned and
A Checkered board is a chess board, i.e
becomes a king.
a board with dark and light squares
Blitz
Type of timed game where players are limited to one to
Man
A single checker not yet advanced to king row.
three minutes each per game
( a single, uncrowed piece)
A position where the checker pieces cannot move; one
Mid-game
Portion of the game between the opening and
way to win the game.
endgame
Capture
To jump an opponent’s checker then remove it from the
Mirrored
A board with the bottom left square light NOT
board. Capture is mandatory in checkers variants.
board
black
Checker
A playing piece used to play checkers. Also called a man
Move
To move is to have the position
Placement of a checker on top of a piece that has
A method of recording the moves in the game.
Crowning
reached the last rank to indicate its promotion to king.
Notation
It could be algebraic (letter+number)
or numeric (only numerals)
Two jumps made one after another as part of the same
Initial combination of moves for each checkers
Double jump
move.
Opening
Draw
Situation where both players agreed that neither has
Piece
Checker piece whether it is a man or a king
enough advantage nor time to win
End Game
Portion of the game where there are 8 or fewer pieces
Position
left on the board
on the number of pieces on each side
Kinged piece that can move any number of spaces
Flying" King
diagonally/orthogonally, either way, or jump over any
Rank
A horizontal row of squares.
piece in its path provided there is at least one space
between them. A non-flying king is called a short king
Give Away
A checkers variant where you lose all of your checkers.
Resign
Concede the game
Remove the player’s piece because the player didn’t
Quantity
The number of pieces that will be captured.
huffing
capture the opponent’s piece. Huffing has been
(capture
It could be maximum capture or any sequence
abolished though some variants still allow it.
(sequence)
as long as all possible captures are made
Two-square diagonal/orthogonal move in which the
Jump
second square is initially vacant and the intervening
Game in which players are limited to a certain
square is occupied by an opponent's piece, which is
Timed Game
amount of time per move or per game
captured and removed from play
A checker that reaches the king row becomes a king.
A board without colours, i.e a board without
King
We say that checker is “kinged” or “crowned”. A king
uncheckered
dark and light squares. Such board is used in
can move backwards or forwards. King halt means the
orthogonal games
king is obliged to stop after the last captured piece.
[2] Books
Alemanni, JB. (2005).LES JEUX DE DAMES DANS LE MONDE. Chiron:France
Arie Van Der Stoep. (1984). History of draughts. Netherlands
Arie Van Der Stoep. (2007). Draughts in relation to Chess and Alquerque. Netherlands
Parlett, David .(1999).Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford. Oxford University Press
Morehead, Alfred H., Richard L. Frey, Geoffrey Mott-Smith. (1947). The New Complete Hoyle. Garden city Books
Blachetta, Blachetta. (1942). DAS GROSSE SPIELMAGAZI
Westerveld, Govert (2009). The History of Checkers (Draughts). Blanca (Murcia) Spain. www.lulu.com
Murray, Harlod. (1952). Board games other than chess. Oxford. Oxford University Press
Alda’ooq, Muhammad Ali. (2006). Dama Game. Lebanon. Dar Alhikayat for typing, publishing and distribution.
Gagiyev, S.G. (1980). Osetinskiye natsionalye igry. Ordzhonikdze.
[3] Articles
Viglyanskiy. Draughts games. Article one // Chess sheet. - 1879, № 9-10, c.
based on email communication with the Russian board and card games researcher, Alexey Lobashev.
Mourik, Wim van. (1998). Dammen in het land van koning Maswati, Het Damspel, page 8.
[4] Email Communication
Alexey Lobashev regarding Russian draughts, Ossetian Keny and the variants played in the former Soviet Union
countries.
Peter Michaelsen regarding European draughts variants as well as many matters on Draughts
Jack Kacher regarding the Unified Approach to Pool Checkers
Wim van Mourik regarding draughts variants in general and Swazi checkers in particular
(XI) Sotwares and Applications (Many draughts variants)
[1] Softwares
WorldCheckers8
Aurora Borealis
Checkers-7 2.5
Checkersland http://www.checkersland.com
Gigant Checkers
Cerberus Checkers http://home.planet.nl/~nagel580/
Zillions of games http://www.zillions-of-games.com [inbuilt]
Checkers variants
Scandinavian Checkers
PlayBox Checkers https://sourceforge.net/projects/playbox/
[2] Android Apps
Out of the bit Checkers