Teledisk File Format

09/25/01 Created
12/08/02 Updated

Historic Overview
Structures and My Algorithm
Examples and Problems
Late Breaking News, ie Sergey's Algorithm

First a little history, Teledisk was a popular disk archival tool around 1990. My interest comes from the fact that there are a number of archives, ie Update and Metalab, that contain teledisk images of DEC RX50 disks for Rainbows, Decmates, and Pro3xxs. You can find some discussion regarding Teledisk in RX50faq.doc.

Teledisk was originally released as a shareware program by Sydex. Its still available as a disk archival tool in a number of MSDOS program archives. The copy I found, version 2.12, contained files dated 12/12/1990. As near as I can tell Sydex still has a web site but the Teledisk product was purchased by New Technologies, Inc in 2000. They have a Teledisk web page, but are not even marketing the current version, 2.22, to the general public. It is definately no longer a shareware program!

I sent email to both Sydex and New Technologies, Inc regarding the status of Teledisk and the archived images. I got a prompt reply from Miriam W. St.Clair for Sydex, Inc. She confirms all rights were sold to New Technologies, Inc and further that "TeleDisk was removed by Sydex from shareware distribution and support in April 1991". This is consistent with the comment in the rx50faq.doc above that teledisk V2.12 was the last shareware version and it has been discontinued from support.

Some people I have talked to still say they can use it reliably, but my experience is that V2.12, which seems to have been used to create the RX50 images I am interested in, does not appear to reliably recreate these images on current machines. One theory is that Teledisk has internal timing loops which depend on machine speed so it might reproduce these images on a vintage 1990 machine, but not on most of the systems normally in use today. My original motivation was to be able to recreate disks from the archived images. I'm the proud owner of several IBM AT and XT systems with 5.25" disk drives, however I have not been able to recreate RX50 disks using Teledisk on these machines. I'd be fascinated if anyone still has a machine running where Teledisk is reliable with an RX50, please describe it to me! I'm very interested in how it is different from the machines I've used for testing. Note that its only the 10 sector RX50 that causes problems, and it may be I did not follow the formating suggestions in RX50faq.doc.

I am not interested in reverse engineering Teledisk, I just want to extract the compressed data to a sector by sector image of the disk with which I can work. My personal solution to recreating physical disks when I want them has been to use a DEC Rainbow to write the image back to disk using a real RX50. John Wilson's PUTR is an MSDOS program which can write RX50 images to 1.2 Mb 5.25" disk drives in a modern PC compatible. This is a good alternate approach if you want RX50s. One can also directly write sectors to conventional PC disks with the BIOS Int 0x13 however I have had problems with some machines when attempting to write the 10 sector disks required for an RX50. If you need help writing image files back to disk with MSDOS on a PC or Rainbow, I can make a disk utility program I wrote available. See the contact info at the end of this document. However I think PUTR is probably your best bet. If using PUTR with an RX50, mount the physical drive as /RX50 /FOREIGN and then use COPY /FILE/DEVICE/BINARY with the source file created by Wteledsk to create the RX50. (see the examples section of this file)

Since starting this project, I've talked to a couple people who were interested in extracting the data from Teledisk image files to disk image files suitable for use with one of the PDP11 emulators. The code and algorithm presented below allow one to do this. The wteledsk program creates a physical disk image (sector order), not a logical image! (again see examples section of this file)

A year ago there was a significant amount of control information in the *.td0 files that I just didn't understand. I recently discovered that Sydex released a validation program. This appears to be available in a number of places on the net. There were at least two versions, you want TDCHECK V1.10 which I found in I was able to modify key sections of some sample images and use the tdcheck error messages to determine the function of each region of the header data. However I'd still be pleased to have others review this and maybe pick up things I've missed. I'll try to point these areas out in the description below. For example most of the sample *.td0 images I found are for 512 byte sector RX50 disks. I did eventually find some 1024 byte sector Akai images which allowed me to determine how the sector size is encoded; however these have some 'phantom' sectors that I don't understand! My program seems to correctly decode V2.12 images of DEC PRO, Rainbow and DecMate disks. It also appears to work with V2.16 images created for Akai samplers when I ignore the phantom sectors.
Also of interest is a Conversion Utility I found recently, unfortunately the limited documentation is not in a language I can read. This apparently converts teledisk images of ZX-Spectrum game disks to an emulator format. I have had a brief email conversation with the author, and he was able to put me on the right track regarding the new advanced compression algorithm.

The algorithm below seems to work for *.td0 images which were created with "Normal" compression. It turns out the "New Advanced" compression just overlays a secondary compression algorithm on top of a "normal" compression file. Sergey Erokhin, the author of tdcvt, pointed out that the teledisk documentation says it uses LZSS-Huffman compression. On Sergey's recommendation I did a search for public domain source code and found lzhuf.c which can be modified to decompress these teledsk images. I've included the source code and an MSDOS program to convert teledisk files from 'New Advanced' back to Normal compression. Although Wteledsk.exe will decompress on the fly, I only describe the Normal compression algorithm. I'm not qualified to explain LZSS decompression, I just lifted the code!

In the discussion below I will refer to the following C structures from the source code, wteledsk.c:

struct file_head {
char sig[3];  // signature "TD", nul terminated string
BYTE  unkwn,  // doesn't seem to be used?
      ver,    // for v2.11 through v2.16 seems to be 0x15
      data1,  // 0x00 (except for akai)
      type,   // see bios drive type 1-4,
      flag,   // among other things can indicate comment field
      data2,  // often 0x00
      sides;  // 0x01 (always with rx50 or 0x02 with most MSDOS disks)
WORD  crc;  //   crc of 1st 0xA bytes in record
The first three bytes are the upper case string "TD" if the file was created using "Normal" compression and lower case "td" if it was created using "Advanced" compression. The next byte is a mystery, one can change it and TDCHECK doesn't care. As indicated above the ver field has been 0x15 in all the samples I've found. If one reduces this value to anywhere in the range 0xA - 0x13 TDCHECK says the image was created with the "Old Advanced" compression which says to me this is a version field. It appears to map to the first two decimal digits in the version number of the Teledisk.exe program. Type is the bios drive type used to create the image. Flag appears to be a bitmap. The low order bit(s) appear to map to the physical drive number used when the image was created. The high bit is set if there is a comment block. The data1 and data2 fields are a mystery. Sides appears to be the upper limit for the head field. It is set to 1 if the disk is single sided or just side one is checked on a two sided disk. It is set to 2 for a two sided disk when both sides are check and when only the 2nd side is checked. The last word is a 16 bit CRC. It appears to be a table driven algorithm. Note that this initial file header always occurs and is never encoded. However with advanced compression the remainder of the file is encoded. I see nothing in the file_head to indicate the number of tracks nor sectors per track. Apparently these are generated on the fly by the values in the individual track and sector records. It appears that the Teledisk format allows a different size (as a power of 128) for each individual sector.

struct com_head {
WORD crc, //  checksum of 8 bytes from &len to end of record
     len;     // length of string data region following date
BYTE yr,mon,day,
     hr,min,sec; // date and time info....
The structure above immediately follows the main file header if and only if there is a comment block, ie the high order bit is set in the flag field. The len field indicates the number of descriptive string bytes following this structure. Each of the descriptive strings is NUL terminated. The remaining six bytes are a time stamp, where the year is relative to 1900.

Following this point the file loops through all the sectors for each track alternating between heads if both sides are being checked. The following track_rec preceeds each block of track/head data:

struct track_rec {
BYTE nsec,  // number of sectors on track
     trk,   // track number, 0 based
     head,  // head number, 0 based
A 16 bit crc is calculated for the first 3 bytes in each track_rec. However only the low order 8 bits are saved for validation in the crc field.

The following sec_rec preceeds each block of sector data. secsz has been 2 in all RX50 images (512 bytes) and 3 for Akai (1024) byte sectors. I believe its a power of two which is then multiplied by 128 to get the sector size. Normally the sec_rec is the full 9 bytes long, however when cntrl is 0x10 the record has a different structure and the last 3 bytes are not included in the file. This requires one to read this structure in two steps.

struct sec_rec {
BYTE trk,head,sec; // trk,head,sector following dat is for
BYTE secsz,        // bytes in sec = 128 * (2 ** secsz)
     crc, // if there is sector data, this is low byte of crc for entire sector
          // its NOT crc of 1st 5 bytes, see DSCRC
     unknwn[2],    // please tell me if you have a guess! (see eof)
     flag;         // controls extra bytes and use


I've identified three methods of filling in the sector data:
if sec_rec.flag == 0
   read the full sector directly from the file
else if (sec_rec.cntrl = 0x10)
   the sector is empty, I fill it with zeros but who knows?
   Note only 6 bytes of sec_rec were in the file in this case
else if sec_rec.flag == 1
   read next 4 bytes and treat as a rep_rec
   fill sector with rep_rec.count repeats of rep_rec.pat[]
   I believe this implies count is always half the sector size.
else if sec_rec.flag == 2
   repeat until sector buffer is full:
       read 2 bytes and treat as start of pat_rec
       flag value and count determine action.
       I call this a fragmented read as multiple
       pat_rec reads are required to fill the buffer.

struct rep_rec {
     WORD count;
     BYTE pat[2];

struct pat_rec {
BYTE flag,count,pat[]; //if flag > 0, repeat pat count times
In a fragmented read pat_rec.flag and pat_rec.count are always read, and they control the way additional data is optained from the file and written to the sector buffer. Since the pat_rec.count is a BYTE, the maximum value is 0xff. As indicated below if the flag == 0 only the first two bytes are used and the following count bytes in the file are raw sector data which should be appended to the current sector buffer. If flag >= 1 it determines the number of bytes of pat[] to be read from the file and copied count times to the sector buffer. To date I've only seen flag values of 0 and 1 from Teledisk V2.12, however Teledisk V2.16 uses pat_rec.flag as a power of two for the number of bytes in the pattern, ie 1 => 2 bytes, 2 => 4 bytes etc.

The following algorithm seems to create a physical disk image,
its the logic in main() for V2.12: (ignore AKAI V2.16 stuff)
Open the output file in binary mode
Open the input file in binary mode
Read struct file_head
   Optionally validate the sig[] field.
Test file_head.flag, if high bit set there is comment data
   read the com_head
   read com_head.len bytes of descriptive strings
   optionally display this data, its not part of the output image
While not at the end of the file read struct trk_rec
   if trk_rec.nsec == 0xff  STOP  you are done
   for each sector, trk_rec.nsec, 
	process one sector per algorithm below and write to output

The following is the logic for the routine do_sector() which
is called to process each sector, one at a time.  It returns
a completely filled in sector buffer to the caller:

Read first 6 bytes of struct sec_rec, its variable length
if sec_rec.cntrl == 0x10, alternate 6 byte record
    set sec_rec,flag =1 (fudge it to a full record)
else read last 3 bytes of struct sec_rec from input
At this point I've seen 4 possibilities for the sector data:
if sec_rec.cntrl == 0x10
    there is no sector data in the file, Nul out sector buffer
else if(sec_rec.flag == 0)
    read a full sector directly from input file
else if(sec_rec.flag == 1) 
    read 4 bytes from input, treat as rep_rec
else if(sec_rec.flag == 2)  
    do a fragmented read as described above to fill sector
    buffer.  The basic algorithm for this do_read() routine 
    is shown below:
  set count of bytes in sector, sec_cnt, to 0

  BLK_SZ = 128 * (2 ** secsz)
  while sec_cnt < BLK_SZ
    read struct data_rec  
    if data_rec.flag == 0   the data's in the input file
	append data_rec.count bytes from input to sector buffer
	increment sec_cnt by # of bytes appended (max is 0xff)
    else if data_rec.flag >= 1 a byte pattern is in input file
	with length = patlen = 2 * (2 ** data_rec.flag)
	treat it as a pat_rec and read patlen bytes into pat[]
	repeat  the following data_rec.count times
            append the patlen pat[] bytes to sector buffer
	    increment sec_cnt by patlen 
WARNING: since originally writing the section above, I extended the algorithm to deal with some new wrinkles I found in V2.16 AKAI samples. These are indicated in the source code, but not above. If you comment out the line "#define AKAI 1" near the begining of the program it follows the logic above. Otherwise it attempts to deal with what seem to be phantom sectors with (sec_rec.sec & 0x60) > 0. This frequently occurs in the V2.16 images, but it appears that ignoring this "phantom" data works just fine. Naturally I do not feel real comfortable with this solution, but it seems to work. To decode most of the V2.16 images I have looked at one must use the "-s" command line option to allow skipped sectors which V2.16 seems to do fairly often. I'm not clear if these are unreadable sectors, or what. This hasn't been an issue in most of the DEC images I am actually interested in so I have not persued the issue.

Also note that there was an option for MSDOS disks to skip sectors not allocated in the FAT table. No attempt has been made to pad these skipped sectors in the current program because this case doesn't occur in the DEC images that interested me.

The program I wrote, wteledsk.c V1.01, is offered as an LHA archive under the GNU General Public License. It should compile under Linux via gcc and MSDOS with one of the Microsoft C compilers. I encourage people to look at it and improve it. Please give me some credit if you do, and more importantly let me know if you make it better! The archive contains this file, the C source code, and the MSDOS executables for creating raw images from *.td0 wteledsk files, as well as a tdconv.exe which converts an NEW ADVANCED compression *.td0 file back to NORMAL compression.

The program is conditionally compiled, and there are more conditionals than I'd like (sorry). It looks for MSDOS which the Microsoft compilers define. If defined an MSDOS environment is assumed, otherwise a GNU/Linux environment is assumed with gcc. I also have a DUMP define, when defined the header and block dump options are enabled for debugging. In this case the user must provide and link with their own dump() routine, see the prototype in the source. There is also a DISK conditional, which should NOT be defined, which enables absolute floppy disk routines not provided with this distribution. The DCRC and DCOMP defines control whether CRC checks and/or advanced compression are supported. The supplimental source files tdcrc.c and tdlzhuf.c are provided for those that want to turn these options on. Finally there is an AKAI define to enable V2.16 compatiblity.

This version "1.01 AC" of Wteledsk was created with the conditional DUMP and AKAI defined to enable the debug options that I used to test the system. Additionally DCOMP and DCRC are defined so it handles compressed images. You can ignore most of the usage flags below unless you are having a problem with an image and want to get more information, see discussion at the end of this file.

usage: wteledsk <filename> [-o<outputfile>] [-n#] [-dh] [-db] [-s] [-r]
       -d to dump headers and/or restrutured block data
       -n limit scan to first n sectors
       -o output restructured blocks to a file
       -p display phantom sec_rec.nsec values
       -s warn instead of fatal error on skipped or repeated sectors
	  this ignores any data in repeated sectors
       -r similar to above, but write repeated sectors to disk

The input <filename> is required
Use the -o option to generate an output file
   You can omit it for debugging, or just to test file compatibility.
   Note there is no white space between the "-o" and <outputfile>
-n limits the number of sectors processed
-dh dumps the header control blocks encountered
-db dumps the sector buffer data after it is restructured
    (the -d options are only available when conditional DUMP defined)

I'd be pleased to have people contact me to report success or failure. If you have problems I'm interested cause you probably have an image I don't. However please DO NOT just email it to me, I've got an old slow internet connection at the end of a dirt road!

Enhancements with Version 1.01 AC
It now correctly handles the case where there is no comment data
It displays the time stamp in the comment field (most of the time it does this correctly but a couple files come out oddly).
It now pads the sector with a fixed pattern when sec_rec.flag ==1 whereas previously it just skipped over the sector.
It correctly handles the "new" ADVANCED compression.

Most of the validation done used John Wilson's PUTR in one way or another as described below. Most source files mentioned came from Update. In general they are also available from Sunsite in both *.td0 and logical *.dsk format. I just noticed this, and it would be a good validation method, but its not the one I used!

Note the rx50faq.doc at Update and Sunsite contains a fair amount of discussion regarding interleave optimization based on the target system. I have NO IDEA how to control this. It could be that this information is in the two unknwn[] bytes in the struct sec_rec, however I can't figure it out. One may end up with non-optimal disks using PUTR as described below, but they boot! What Wteledisk produces is a raw/physical sector by sector image of the disk. A number of the test images from the /PRO directory at Update were for the DEC PRO series and are in FILES11 format. In PUTR one can use the following mount command where <file> is the path/name of the output file from Wteledsk:
MOUNT du0: <file> /files11 /nointer

Once mounted RSX style directory and type commands work. Although it probably doesn't matter, I believe PUTR determines its an RX50 from the file length. The fact that I can access the text files on the following reconstructed images suggests that the images are valid:

source file       text file viewed via PUTR's type command
f77.td0           du0:[install]install.cmd;1
decusc1.td0       du0:[userfiles]readme.txt;1 
181.td0           du0:[util]k11hlp.hlp;1

Then I dug out some bootable disks, and tried them on
an appropriate target machine.  I created an image file with
Wteledsk, then used PUTR with the following commands:
   mount b: /rx50 /foreign
   format b:
   copy /files/device/binary <image file> b:

source of <image file>
cpm80sys.td0      tried to boot on a Decmate III, it knows its
		  supposed to be a CPM disk, but I had no CPM card.
		  Not a great test!
wpsystem.td0      booted on Decmate III
dos310b.td0       booted on a Rainbow
179-1.td0         booted on a PRO 350  (PRO disk maintainence diskette)
vnx2xfer.td0      booted on a PRO 350  (Venix install disk from

The results above suggest I have a fairly robust decoder.  All the samples
above decode without the -s or -r options.  There are 80 sequential 
tracks each with 10 sequential sectors in the images.  There is also a 
wps?.td0 collection for the PRO at update.  Like the Venix2 distribution 
these are in the ADVANCED compression format, but they all contain skipped 
and/or repeated sectors.  I suspect this means that when they were created 
the source machine was having a hard time reading the target disks and 
tried more than once on several of the tracks.  When my code detects a 
skipped sector it inserts a test message in the image file, 
   "Skip %2d blocks".
Even with the -r option which allows it to overwrite with repeated
sectors these images end up 20 - 30 skipped blocks out of the total 800.

I do not understand what wps1.td0 is supposed to be, probably an empty
disk.  wps6.td0 is in DECVMSEXCHNG format and I have no good way
to validate it.  The others can be mounted and read using PUTR, but
casual examination of some of the text files reveals several have
holes in them where a block was skipped.  Using the -r options helps,
but does not eliminate the problem for  
My guess is these are not usable images, but it could indicate a 
problem with Wteledsk.

source file       text file viewed via PUTR's type command
wps2.td0          du0:[001054];1
wps3.td0          du0:[zzsys]sir.msg;1
wps4.td0          du0:[zzsys]futl.hlp;1

wps5.td0 has a different problem.  The second trk_rec read is 
#1 which is expected, but then the next sec_rec is for track #2
rather than track #1.  Never seen an image like this, and my code
currently aborts on this condition.

In closing I give a sample header dump using the "-dh" command
line option from blank.td0.  This was posted on the vmsnet.pdp-11
newsgroup by Kevin McQuiggin on 02/07/1999 as a sample of a blank
RX50 formated for a PDP11.  I present an abridged version of
the initial screen output resulting form "wteledsk blank.td0 -dh":
0000: 54 44 00 57  15 00 02 80  00 01 EE F3              |TD.W........    
000C: 3F DA 3D 00  61 02 08 08  2D 2F                    |?.=.a...-/      

This is DEC blank RX50 for testing Part # BL-N402A-BK

created Mar 08, 1997  08:45:47
string len 0x3d  start variable 0x53 = 0x3d with 8 NULs
file length 0x2a38 = 10808

10 sectors for head 0 physical track  0 (decimal)
0053: 0A 00 00 88                                        |....            
0057: 00 00 01 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
0064: 00 00 02 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
0071: 00 00 03 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
007E: 00 00 04 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
008B: 00 00 05 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
0098: 00 00 06 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00A5: 00 00 07 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00B2: 00 00 08 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00BF: 00 00 09 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00CC: 00 00 0A 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   

10 sectors for head 0 physical track  1 (decimal)
00D9: 0A 01 00 01                                        |....            
00DD: 01 00 01 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00EA: 01 00 02 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   
00F7: 01 00 03 02  00 A8 05 00  01 00 01 E5  E5          |.............   

........ this repeats through all tracks with 10 sectors
per track.  Note tracks are zero based and sectors are
one based in this format.  The 7th and 8th bytes in the 
sec_rec are unknwn[]  = {05 00} for all sectors.  This 
makes me think it has nothing to do with the hardware
sector ids, but what do I know!

If an output image is produced from blank.td0 its just
a 409,600 byte file where each byte has the value 0xE5.

Late Breaking News

The following information is only in this file, not the archived version, nor is it reflected in Wteledsk.c.

A net neighbor from the UK sent me the following segment from the user manual for Teledisk Version 1.04 dated August 1988. It describes the file format in use at that time. Note that the advanced data compression method is different and I suspect some other fields have changed but it is very similar to what I have seen. I was unaware that one could have a sequence of teledisk files, ie I always thought the 3rd byte was zero and even with the text below I don't know how to predict the fourth byte!
I have not been sure what the two fields in the file_head structure named "data" represent. From this document it appears they may be the source density and track density.
I have defined a sec_rec.cntrl field in Wteledisk.c and identified the case where this has the value 0x10 which occurs in RX50 disk images. The text below suggests a number of other bit values for this field and says 0x10 implies an unallocated sector on a DOS disk. This is unlikely on DEC PDP-11 RX50 so the later versions of Teledisk may have slightly different flag usage, but this is very instructive. I also note the document below describes a 2 byte CRC which includes the header and sector data, my experience is the current sector record format only uses a one byte CRC, and it does not include the header fields. This document suggests the track and sector ids in the control structures are those that are actually found on the disk in its "id address field". From this I am not clear if they are saved to the image in the order in which they occur on the disk or not (probably not). The text from the Version 1.04 manual follows:


 The first file of a TELEDISK series has,  as its file name exten-
 sion, TD0.  A subsequent file will have the extension TD1, and so

 Every TELEDISK data file has a header of the following form:

      File Identification, 2 bytes, with a value of 'TD' if normal
      data  compression was used to write it,  or 'td' if advanced
      data compression was used.

      Volume Sequence, 1 byte, the first volume is volume 0.

      Check Signature, 1 byte.	 This is a unique signature common
      to all files in a sequence.  That is, the headers for a TD0,
      TD1,  TD2	 sequence would all have this same check signature

      Version number, 1 byte.	Version of TELEDISK used to create
      this file.  A decimal value of 10 would signify version 1.0,
      11 would signify version 1.1 and so on...

      Source Density,  1 byte.	Recording density of source drive;
      0 = 250K bps,  1 = 300K bps,  2 = 500K bps.   If this was	 a
      single-density FM diskette, this number is biased by 128.

      Drive Type,  1 byte.   Type of source drive.   1 = 360K, 2 =
      1.2M, 3 = 720K, 4 = 1.44M.   Note that the actual media size
      is  not  recorded;  thus	type 3 may be either 5.25" or 3.5"

      Track Density,  1 byte.	Track density of source	 drive	in
      relation to source media.	  0 = source density matches media
      density.	1 = double density media in quad density drive.	 2
      = quad density media in double density drive.

      DOS Mode,	 1 byte.   Nonzero if source diskette was analyzed
      according to DOS allocation.

      Media  surfaces,	1  byte.    1  =  single-sided media,  2 =
      double-sided media.

      Header CRC, 2 bytes.  A 16 bit CRC for this header.

 After the header,  the diskette structure information and  sector
 data  follows.	  If advanced data compression was used to produce
 this file, the information appears in 6,144 byte blocks of 12 bit
 Lempel-Zev code.   Each block is preceded by a 2 byte CRC and a 2
 byte code packet count (one packet = 12 bits).

 The  information  for	each  track  (or surface) is prefixed by a
 header of the following format:

      Sector count, 1 byte.  How many sectors are contained on the
      current track.   If this is the end of the data  file,  this
      field is set to 255.

      Physical	cylinder,  1  byte.   The physical position of the
      source drive head when this track was read.

      Physical side, 1 byte.	The actual surface (0 or 1) of the
      diskette on which this track occurred.

      CRC check byte,  1 byte. A CRC checksum of the preceding 3

 After each track header,  there follows a list of sector headers.
 Each sector header is of the following format:

      Cylinder,	 1 byte.  The cylinder number of this sector as it
      appeared in the ID address field.

      Side,  1 byte.   The side code of this sector as it appeared
      in the ID address field.

      Sector number,  1 byte.  The sector number of this sector as
      it appeared in the ID address field.

      Sector length code, 1 byte.  The length code (0 = 128 bytes,
      1 = 256 bytes, etc.) of this sector as it appeared in the ID
      address field.

      Syndrome flags, 1 byte.  Flags indicating various conditions
      of the sector data field, namely,

	   1  - This sector number occurred more than once on this

	   2  - A data CRC error occurred when this sector  was

	   4	- A deleted data control mark was present for this

	   16 - A DOS sector copy was requested;  this sector was
	   not allocated.   In this case,  no sector data follows
	   this header.

	   32 - This sector's data field is missing;  no sector
	   data follows this header.

	   64  -  No ID address field was present for this sector,
	   but there is a data field.	The sector information in
	   the header represents fabricated information.

      Sector  CRC,  2 bytes.   A CRC checksum of the sector header
      information as well as the sector data which follows.

 If present,  (see the syndrome flags above) the data for the cur-
 rent sector follows the header.   Note that this data is also in-
 cluded in the CRC checksum in the header.

Sergey's Algorithm

I discovered a reference to TDCVT as I was finishing my version 1.01 work. As mentioned above this web page for Teledisk conversion is in Russian (?), but I have had a couple very useful emails from the author, Sergey Erokhin.

Eventually Sergey sent me the following structures and pseudoalgorithm as well as another copy of the Teledisk manual above on which these structures appear to be based. His _HDR, _CMT, _TRK, and _SEC structures map to my file_head, com_head, track_rec, and sec_rec. The most important difference is in Sergey's RLEExpander() routine and his interpretation of the _SEC data. He indicates that my sec_rec.unknwn[] fields are the number of bytes to be decoded by RLEExpander() for the next sector.

Sergey gave me permission to publish his algorithm here, and to include his public email address: . He says he lives in Solar system, Earth, Europe, Ukraine, Kharkov ...
and for more information on the Ukraine he recommended the CIA factbook.

struct _HDR
 byte TXT[2];
 byte SeqVal;
 byte ChkSig;
 byte TDVer;
 byte Dens;
 byte DrvType;
 byte TrkDens;
 byte DosMode;
 byte Surface;
 word CRC;
} __attribute__ ((packed));

struct _TRK
 byte SecPerTrk;
 byte PhisCyl;
 byte PhisSide;
 byte CRC;
} __attribute__ ((packed));

struct _SEC
 byte Cyl;
 byte Side;
 byte SNum;
 byte SLen;
 byte Syndrome;
 byte CRC;
} __attribute__ ((packed));

struct _CMT
 word CRC;
 word Len;
 byte YMD[3];
 byte HMS[3];
} __attribute__ ((packed));


 if (calcCRC(HDR)!=hdr.crc) Exit(BadCRC)

 if ( (hdr[0]=='T') && (hdr[1]=='D') ) Compress=0;goto Step2
 if ( (hdr[0]=='t') && (hdr[1]=='d') ) Compress=1;goto Step2


 if ( Version&gt21 or Version&lt10  ) exit ( WrongVersion )
 if ( Version&gt20 )  NewComp=1

 if ( Compress )
   if ( NewComp ) print(NewAdvComp)
   else print(AdvComp)
   print (NormalDataComp)

 if ( Compr )
   if ( NewComp )  PrepNewAdv()
   else PrepOldAdv()


 if ( hdr.SeqValue !=0 ) exit(BadFileHdr);

 if ( hdr.DosMode )  print( DosAllocSector )
 else print(All Sectorr)

 if ( hdr.Surface==1 )  print( One Side )
 else print(Both Side)


 if ( hdr.TrkDens & 0x80 == 0x80  )
 else print(No Comments)

 while (Trk.SecCount != 0xff )
   for ( i=0;i < trk.SecCount;i++ )

    if  ( (SecHdr.Syndrom & 0x30) == 0 && (SectHdr.SLen & 0xf8) == 0 )
      int DataLen;
    if ( SecHdr.CRC!=tmp ) Error(BAD DATA)

 print( Check Ok )

// --------------
 src=[dw len][db Type][db (n) data]

int RLEExpander(src,dst,int *len)
  char *s1,*s2,d1,d2;
  int len,rlen,data;

  switch ( src.type )
    case 0:
      while ( len-- )  *s2++=*s1++;
    case 1:
    {[1]<&lt8 ||[0];
      while (len--) {*s2++=d1;*s2++=d2;}
    case 2:
      switch ( *s1++;len2-- )
        case 0:
          while ( len-- ) *s2++=*s1++;
        case 1:
          while (len--) {*s2++=d1;*s2++=d2;}
      if ( len2!=0 ) goto l2
  return rlen;
I also downloaded Sergey's package and played with it a bit. Some expairmentation was required on my part as the documentation is not in English, but the usage messages from the programs and the batch files are quite readable, even if you only have my limited language skills. Sergey supplies Sydex's TDcheck version 1.10 and his TDunp and TDcvt. TDunp is a file verification program similar to TDcheck, but it will also create a normal compression file from one which uses Teledisk's advanced compression. It must be run before TDcvt if the original image uses advanced compression. TDcvt can create two emulator formats of ZX-Spectrum game disks (?) depending on a command line argument. TDcvt fails with a Teledisk image of a DEC RX50 when the -T option is used, but successfully creates a *.FDI image when the -F option is used. If one then strips off the first 7105 bytes of emulator data from this image you get a raw RX50 image identical to the one created by Wteledsk.exe. Its a little depressing to have gone to all that work only to find out Sergey had done it better and before me, but I guess its not all that surprising.