COMMANDS.TXT: Supplemental Disk Commands (Part 2 of 2) (97835)

The information in this article applies to:
    Microsoft MS-DOS operating system 6.0

This article was previously published under Q97835


The MS-DOS 6 Supplemental Disk includes a file called COMMANDS.TXT. This file contains descriptions for all the files on the supplemental disk and instructions for using them.

Note: This file was split into two articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base. This is the second article.



   Note: The EDLIN instructions have not been included in this KB
   article due to their large size. If you need these instructions,
   obtain the COMMANDS.TXT supplemental disk images on :



A corrected version of the EGA.CPI file included with MS-DOS 6.

This file is corrected to support the Eastern European Codepage


Converts .EXE (executable) files to binary format.

EXE2BIN is included with MS-DOS as a courtesy to software developers.
It is not useful for general users.

EXE2BIN [drive1:][path1]input-file [[drive2:][path2]output-file]

   Specifies the location and name of the input file.

   Specifies the location and name of the output file.


Restrictions on using EXE2BIN
The following restrictions apply when you use the EXE2BIN command:
o The input file must be in valid .EXE format produced by the linker
  and must not be packed.

o The resident, or actual, code and data portions of the file combined
  must be less than 64K.

o There must be no STACK segment.

Default values for parameters
EXE2BIN takes specific actions, depending upon the values you use for
the input-file and output-file parameters.

o The default filename extension for the filename you specify for
  input-file is .EXE. EXE2BIN converts the input .EXE file to an
  output file in .BIN format (a memory image of the program) and uses
  the location and filename you specify for [drive2:][path2]output-
  file to store that output file.

o If you do not specify drive2 or path2, EXE2BIN writes the output
  file to the current drive and directory.

o If you do not specify an output filename, EXE2BIN uses the input

o The default extension for the filename specified for the output-file
  parameter is .BIN.

Types of conversion available with EXE2BIN
Two types of conversion are possible, depending upon whether the
initial CS:IP (Code Segment:Instruction Pointer) is specified in the
.EXE file. The following list presents the two types:

o If the CS:IP is not specified in the .EXE file, EXE2BIN performs a
  pure binary conversion. If segment fixups are necessary (that is, if
  the program contains instructions requiring segment relocation),
  EXE2BIN prompts you for the fixup value. This value is the absolute
  segment at which the program is to be loaded. The resulting program
  is usable only when loaded at the absolute memory address specified
  by your program. The command interpreter cannot load the program.

o If the CS:IP is specified as 0000:100H, the file runs as a .COM file
  with the instruction pointer set at 100H by the assembler statement
  ORG. Include the .COM extension in the output-file parameter. No
  segment fixups are allowed, because .COM files must be segment-
  relocatable; that is, they must assume the entry conditions
  explained in the Microsoft Macro Assembler manuals. The command
  interpreter can then load and run the program in the same way as it
  loads and runs the .COM programs supplied on your MS-DOS disk.


An IBM PS/2 mouse utility used with AccessDOS.

See ADOS.TXT for information about using FAKEMOUS.


Enables MS-DOS to display the extended characters of a specified code
page in graphics mode.

Most monitors can display extended characters (ASCII characters 128
through 255) without the GRAFTABL command. Use this command only if
your monitor does not properly display these characters in graphics



   Specifies the code page for which you want MS-DOS to define the
   appearance of extended characters in graphics mode. The following
   list shows each valid code-page identification number and its
   country or language:

   United States

   Multilingual (Latin I)

   Slavic (Latin II)




   Identifies the code page selected for use by GRAFTABL.


GRAFTABL does not change the active code page
GRAFTABL affects only the appearance of extended characters of the
code page you specify. To change the code page you are using, use the
MODE or CHCP command.

GRAFTABL exit codes
The following list shows each exit code and a brief description of its

   Character set was loaded successfully; no previous code page was

   Character set was already loaded and replaced by new table.

   A file error occurred.

   An incorrect parameter was specified; no action was taken.

   An incorrect version of MS-DOS is in use; version 5.0 is required.

You can use the ERRORLEVEL parameter on the IF command line in a batch
program to process exit codes returned by GRAFTABL. For an example of
a batch program that processes exit codes, see the BACKUP command.

Effect on memory
The GRAFTABL command decreases the amount of available conventional
memory by about 1K.

To load the graphics character set for code page 437 (United States)
into memory, type the following command:


To load the graphics character set for code page 860 (Portuguese) into
memory, type the following command:

   graftabl 860


Joins a disk drive to a directory on another disk drive.

When you use the JOIN command, MS-DOS treats the directories and files
on a disk drive as the contents of the other drive and path you

JOIN [drive1: [drive2:]path]

JOIN drive: /D

   Specifies the floppy disk drive or logical drive that you want to
   join to a different drive and directory.

   Specifies the floppy disk drive or logical drive to which you want
   to join drive1.

   Specifies the directory to which you want to join drive1. This
   directory must be empty before you join drive1 to it. It must also
   be a directory other than the root directory.

   Specifies a floppy disk drive or logical drive that was previously
   specified in a JOIN command that you are now canceling.

    Cancels any previous JOIN commands for the drive you specify.

Drive1 becomes invalid
After you use the JOIN command, the drive1 you specify becomes
If you then try to use it, MS-DOS displays the following message:

   Invalid drive specification

Limitations on path
If the directory specified by path already exists before you use the
JOIN command, you cannot use that directory for any other purpose
while JOIN is in effect. If the directory is not empty, MS-DOS does
not complete the join operation and displays the following message:

   Directory not empty

If the directory does not exist, MS-DOS tries to create it.

Limitations on using JOIN with other commands
The following commands do not work with drives formed by the JOIN

Using JOIN with no parameters
You can use the JOIN command with no parameters to see a list of the
currently joined drives.

You can join any directory or subdirectory in a tree structure. For
example, the following commands are valid:

   join d: c:sales

   join d: c:salesoctober

To reverse either of the previous JOIN commands, type the drive1 value
followed by the /D switch, as follows:
join d: /d


Specifies the number of keystrokes that can be held in your keyboard


   Specifies the number of keystrokes that can be held in the keyboard
   buffer. The acceptable range is 16 to 1024

The KBDBUF.SYS driver should be loaded with the DEVICE command early
in your CONFIG.SYS file. In addition, you cannot load the KBDBUF.SYS
driver into the upper memory area. If you run MemMaker, choose Custom,
and exclude the driver from the optimization process.

If you want to specify a keyboard buffer that allows you to type ahead
25 keystrokes beyond what has been displayed on your screen, add
the following command to your CONFIG.SYS file:



An enhanced version of the KEYB.COM file included with MS-DOS 6.

Enhancements include support for the French Canadian dual keyboard.


An enhanced version of the KEYBOARD.SYS file included with MS-DOS 6.

Enhancements include support the French Canadian, Romanian, Brazilian,
and Icelandic keyboards, as well as a correction to the German


Code-page information file for IBM PC Convertible liquid crystal


Starts the MIRROR program, which records information about one or more
disks; the UNFORMAT and UNDELETE commands can use this information to
restore a reformatted disk or to recover deleted files.

MIRROR [drive:[ ...]] [/1] [/Tdrive[-entries][ ...]]


MIRROR [/partn]

To save information about the disk in the current drive, use the
following syntax:


   Specifies the drive containing the disk for which you want MIRROR
   to save information. This information is used by the UNFORMAT
   command to restore a disk.

   Retains only the latest information about the disk. If you do not
   specify this switch, MIRROR makes a backup copy of the existing
   disk-information file before recording the current information.

   Loads a terminate-and-stay-resident deletion-tracking program that
   records information used by the UNDELETE command to recover deleted
   files. The required drive parameter specifies the drive containing
   the disk for which you want MIRROR to save information about
   deleted files. The optional entries parameter, which must be a
   value in the range 1 through 999, specifies the maximum number of
   entries in the deletion-tracking file (PCTRACKR.DEL). The default
   value for entries is dependent upon the type of disk being tracked.
   The following list shows each disk size, its default number of
   entries, and its corresponding file size:

Disk size          Entries       File size
360K                  25            5K
720K                  50            9K
1.2 megabyte (MB)     75           14K
1.44 MB               75           14K
20 MB                101           18K
32 MB                202           36K
32 MB                303           55K

CAUTION  Do not use deletion tracking for any drive that has been
redirected by using the JOIN or SUBST command. If you intend to use
the ASSIGN command, you must do so before using MIRROR to install
deletion tracking.

   Unloads the deletion-tracking program from memory, disabling
   deletion tracking. You cannot unload the tracking program if you
   loaded any other memory-resident programs after it.

   Saves system information about how a hard disk is partitioned. The
   switch saves the information in a file on a floppy disk. The
   UNFORMAT command can use this file later to rebuild the partitions
   of a disk.

Saving information about a disk
The MIRROR program saves a copy of the file allocation table and the
root directory of the disk in the specified drive. The UNFORMAT
command can use this information to rebuild a disk that has been
unintentionally formatted, or it can use the information to recover
files and subdirectories in the disk's root directory.

Because UNFORMAT restores the disk's system area to the condition it
was in when you last used MIRROR, you should save this information
frequently for every hard disk drive in your system. To ensure that
the information is saved each time you turn on your computer, you may
want to add a MIRROR command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

Removing the deletion-tracking program from memory
You may need to remove the deletion-tracking program from memory. To
do so, remove all memory-resident programs that you loaded after the
deletion-tracking program, and then use the MIRROR command with the /U
switch. Since this turns off deletion tracking, any files deleted
after you remove the tracking program can be recovered only by using
information in the directory.

Saving information about hard-disk partitions
Every formatted hard disk drive has at least one partition. To
identify a hard disk drive, MS-DOS uses information stored in a
special disk partition table. If this table is corrupted, MS-DOS
cannot locate the hard disk.

You can save partition-table information for a hard disk by using the
MIRROR command with the /PARTN switch. This switch creates a file
named PARTNSAV.FIL, which the UNFORMAT command can use to rebuild the
partition table. Because MS-DOS cannot gain access to your hard disk
if the partition table is damaged, you should not put this file on the
hard disk itself. Instead, you should put the file on a floppy disk
(which you should keep in a safe place) or on another hard disk drive,
such as a network server.

To save a copy of the file allocation table and the root directory of
drive C and to install deletion tracking for drives A and C, type the
following command:

   mirror c: /ta /tc

Suppose you want to save a copy of the file allocation table and the
root directory of the disk in the current drive, and you want to
install the deletion-tracking program for drive C. To do this and to
set the maximum number of deletions to be tracked to 500, type the
following command. (Note that since no drive parameter is specified,
MIRROR saves the information about the disk in the current drive.)

   mirror /tc-500

To save a copy of the partition table for your hard disk drive, type
following command:

   mirror /partn

The MIRROR program displays the following information:

   Disk Partition Table saver.
   The partition information from your hard drive(s) has been read.
   Next, the file PARTNSAV.FIL will be written to a floppy disk.
   Please insert a formatted diskette and enter the name of the
   diskette drive. What drive? A

The default disk drive is drive A. If you want to use a different
drive, type the drive letter (making sure it does not identify a
partition on the hard disk drive), insert a formatted floppy disk in
the drive (if necessary), and press ENTER.


Installs support for Qbasic programs that use the Hercules graphics


   Use this switch when a color adapter is also installed.


Supports code-page switching for the parallel ports PRN, LPT1, LPT2,
and LPT3.

DEVICE=[drive:][path]PRINTER.SYS LPTx=(type[,[hwcp][,n]])

   Specifies the location of the PRINTER.SYS file.

    Specifies the number of the parallel port for which you want to
    code-page switching.

    Specifies the printer in use. The following list shows valid
values for
    type and the printers represented by each value:

    4201    IBM Proprinters II and III Model 4201
       IBM Proprinters
II and III XL Model 4202
    4208    IBM Proprinter X24E Model 4207
       IBM Proprinter
XL24E Model 4208
    5202    IBM Quietwriter III Model 5202

    Specifies the code page your hardware supports. The following list
    shows the code pages that MS-DOS supports and the country or
    for each:

    437    United States
    850    Multilingual (Latin I)
    852    Slavic (Latin II)
    860    Portuguese
    863    Canadian-French
    865    Nordic

    Specifies the number ofcode pages your hardware can support in
    addition to the code page specified in the hwcp parameter.

The following command loads the PRINTER.SYS device driver for use with
the IBM Proprinter X24E Model 4207, loads code page 850, and prepares
PRINTER.SYS to support two additional codepages:

   device=c:\dos\printer.sys lpt1:=(4208,850,2)


Prevents MS-DOS from checking the status of your printer. Use this
command only if you have had problems printing since you installed



Installs the commands and files on the Supplemental disks to your
hard drive.

SETUP [drive:][path]

   The drive and directory to which you want to install the
   disk commands and files

You can run the Setup program from a floppy drive, your hard disk, or
from a network drive--just make sure the Setup program is in the same
drive and directory that contains your Supplemental disk files.

If you install any of the Utilities from MS-DOS 5.0, such as the
Backup program, you must restart your computer before using them. This
is because the Setup program modifies your SETVER table, and you must
restart your computer for the modifications to take effect.


If your computer uses a Windows 3.0 permanent swap file, run
the SPATCH.BAT program to make the swap file compatible with MS-DOS 6.

For more information, see the README.TXT file included with MS-DOS 6.

Note: This file is included on the Supplemental disks because some
versions of MS-DOS 6.0 did not include the file.

Modification Type: Major Last Reviewed: 11/19/1999
Keywords: KB97835